They tramped through plantations and forestland that had been previously thinned or burned in managed fires to see if the treatments had succeeded in taming the flames. Curtis Kvamme, a Forest Service soil scientist who was on his fifth day of poking in the dirt, took a shovel to scrape a thin layer of ash from the ground in an area of badly burned timberland. With his gloved hands he carefully exposed the soil, then squirted water in a zigzag pattern onto the ground Nike Womens Air Max 1 Ultra Moire
and watched what it did. It beaded. "High repellency starts at about 3 inches," he told his colleague, Kellen Takenaka, who was recording the information in a small hand held computer. Kvamme's verdict: The soil had burned at high severity, meaning there is a greater chance of erosion. Instead of seeping into the earth, rainfall or snowmelt could wash in torrents downslope, potentially contributing to flooding. "This is cooked, a lot of acres burned pretty intensely," said Todd Ellsworth, a Forest Service watershed manager Womens Nike Air Max Plus Tn who oversaw the post fire survey, known as Burned Area Emergency Response. The team will recommend steps, such as Nike Womens Air Max Motion Lifestyle Shoes
straw mulching, in areas with a high potential for erosion and runoff that could damage roads or clog streams and rivers with sediment.
unburned in 56% of the acreage. But those numbers don't reflect what happened above ground. Satellite imagery reveals hardly a speck of green on one block of 33,593 acres of trees and shrubs. On one 16,445 acre patch of conifers, nothing appears to have survived. And the timing could not have been worse for the Waterloo, Ontario based company. With recent layoffs, poor product sales and fierce smartphone and tablet competition, RIM's place in the global marketplace is as uncertain as ever. It seems the only certainty for RIM is the public relations nightmare it now faces coming o.
When the soil survey results were released a few days later, the findings were better than expected. The soil had burned at high severity in only about 7% of the Rim blaze. The ground burned at low severity or was Womens Nike Air Max Motion Lw
The fire chewed through expanses of ponderosa pine and other conifers. It charred young tree plantations that had been planted after previous wildfires. It scorched some of the last remaining old growth in the Stanislaus, downed power lines and crept up to Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, the source of San Francisco's water. Like all wildfires, it was temperamental. Sometimes it burned furiously, sometimes slowly and sometimes barely at all. That has left a mixed palette of black, brown and green within the fire boundaries. About 29,000 acres were largely untouched by flame, according to the vegetation survey, which compares remote sensing images of the burn area with images taken before the fire. Two weeks ago, dozens of federal scientists from around the country set out to assess the damage and plan emergency recovery efforts. They fanned out across the forest, digging holes to see if the soil would hold water or repel it in erosive sheets. They checked trails and roads and known archaeological sites.
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